This repository is part of the Dask projects. General development guidelines including where to ask for help, a layout of repositories, testing practices, and documentation and style standards are available at the Dask developer guidelines in the main documentation.
After setting up an environment as described in the Dask developer guidelines you can clone this repository with git:
git clone email@example.com:dask/distributed.git
and install it from source:
cd distributed python setup.py install
py.test distributed --verbose
Dask.distributed is a Tornado TCP application. Tornado provides us with both a communication layer on top of sockets, as well as a syntax for writing asynchronous coroutines, similar to asyncio. You can make modest changes to the policies within this library without understanding much about Tornado, however moderate changes will probably require you to understand Tornado IOLoops, coroutines, and a little about non-blocking communication.. The Tornado API documentation is quite good and we recommend that you read the following resources:
Additionally, if you want to interact at a low level with the communication
between workers and scheduler then you should understand the Tornado
IOStream available here:
Dask.distributed wraps a bit of logic around Tornado. See Foundations for more information.
Testing distributed systems is normally quite difficult because it is difficult to inspect the state of all components when something goes wrong. Fortunately, the non-blocking asynchronous model within Tornado allows us to run a scheduler, multiple workers, and multiple clients all within a single thread. This gives us predictable performance, clean shutdowns, and the ability to drop into any point of the code during execution. At the same time, sometimes we want everything to run in different processes in order to simulate a more realistic setting.
The test suite contains three kinds of tests
@gen_cluster: Fully asynchronous tests where all components live in the same event loop in the main thread. These are good for testing complex logic and inspecting the state of the system directly. They are also easier to debug and cause the fewest problems with shutdowns.
with cluster(): Tests with multiple processes forked from the master process. These are good for testing the synchronous (normal user) API and when triggering hard failures for resilience tests.
popen: Tests that call out to the command line to start the system. These are rare and mostly for testing the command line interface.
If you are comfortable with the Tornado interface then you will be happiest
@gen_cluster style of test
@gen_cluster(client=True) def test_submit(c, s, a, b): assert isinstance(c, Client) assert isinstance(s, Scheduler) assert isinstance(a, Worker) assert isinstance(b, Worker) future = c.submit(inc, 1) assert future.key in c.futures # result = future.result() # This synchronous API call would block result = yield future assert result == 2 assert future.key in s.tasks assert future.key in a.data or future.key in b.data
@gen_cluster decorator sets up a scheduler, client, and workers for
you and cleans them up after the test. It also allows you to directly inspect
the state of every element of the cluster directly. However, you can not use
the normal synchronous API (doing so will cause the test to wait forever) and
instead you need to use the coroutine API, where all blocking functions are
prepended with an underscore (
_). Beware, it is a common mistake to use
the blocking interface within these tests.
If you want to test the normal synchronous API you can use a
style test, which sets up a scheduler and workers for you in different forked
def test_submit_sync(loop): with cluster() as (s, [a, b]): with Client(('127.0.0.1', s['port']), loop=loop) as c: future = c.submit(inc, 1) assert future.key in c.futures result = future.result() # use the synchronous/blocking API here assert result == 2 a['proc'].terminate() # kill one of the workers result = future.result() # test that future remains valid assert result == 2
In this style of test you do not have access to the scheduler or workers. The
s, a, b are now dictionaries holding a
multiprocessing.Process object and a port integer. However, you can now
use the normal synchronous API (never use yield in this style of test) and you
can close processes easily by terminating them.
Typically for most user-facing functions you will find both kinds of tests.
@gen_cluster tests test particular logic while the
tests test basic interface and resilience.
You should avoid
popen style tests unless absolutely necessary, such as if
you need to test the command line interface.