Dask can run fully asynchronously and so interoperate with other highly concurrent applications. Internally Dask is built on top of Tornado coroutines but also has a compatibility layer for asyncio (see below).
When starting a client provide the
asynchronous=True keyword to tell Dask
that you intend to use this client within an asynchronous context, such as a
function defined with
async def f(): client = await Client(asynchronous=True)
Operations that used to block now provide Tornado coroutines on which you can
Fast functions that only submit work remain fast and don’t need to be awaited.
This includes all functions that submit work to the cluster, like
future = client.submit(lambda x: x + 1, 10)
You can await futures directly
result = await future >>> print(result) 11
Or you can use the normal client methods. Any operation that waited until it
received information from the scheduler should now be
result = await client.gather(future)
If you want to reuse the same client in asynchronous and synchronous
environments you can apply the
asynchronous=True keyword at each method
client = Client() # normal blocking client async def f(): futures = client.map(func, L) results = await client.gather(futures, asynchronous=True) return results
If you prefer to use the Asyncio event loop over the Tornado event loop you
should use the
from distributed.asyncio import AioClient client = await AioClient()
All other operations remain the same:
future = client.submit(lambda x: x + 1, 10) result = await future # or result = await client.gather(future)
Python 2 Compatibility¶
Everything here works with Python 2 if you replace
See more extensive comparison in the example below.
This self-contained example starts an asynchronous client, submits a trivial job, waits on the result, and then shuts down the client. You can see implementations for Python 2 and 3 and for Asyncio and Tornado.
Python 3 with Tornado¶
from dask.distributed import Client async def f(): client = await Client(asynchronous=True) future = client.submit(lambda x: x + 1, 10) result = await future await client.close() return result from tornado.ioloop import IOLoop IOLoop().run_sync(f)
Python 2/3 with Tornado¶
from dask.distributed import Client from tornado import gen @gen.coroutine def f(): client = yield Client(asynchronous=True) future = client.submit(lambda x: x + 1, 10) result = yield future yield client.close() raise gen.Result(result) from tornado.ioloop import IOLoop IOLoop().run_sync(f)
Python 3 with Asyncio¶
from distributed.asyncio import AioClient async def f(): client = await AioClient() future = client.submit(lambda x: x + 1, 10) result = await future await client.close() return result from asyncio import get_event_loop get_event_loop().run_until_complete(f())
Historically this has been used in a few kinds of applications:
- To integrate Dask into other asynchronous services (such as web backends), supplying a computational engine similar to Celery, but while still maintaining a high degree of concurrency and not blocking needlessly.
- For computations that change or update state very rapidly, such as is common in some advanced machine learning workloads.
- To develop the internals of Dask’s distributed infrastucture, which is written entirely in this style.
- For complex control and data structures in advanced applications.